Oracle released PJM(Project Management Method) to maintain Oracle application Projects.
It consists of different templates to track the processes.
PJM is organized into thirteen (13) processes:.
- Bid Transition
- Scope Management
- Financial Management
- Work Management
- Risk Management
- Issue and Problem Management
- Staff Management
- Communication Management
- Quality Management
- Configuration Management
- Infrastructure Management
- Procurement Management
- Organizational Change Management
PROJECT MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
PJM tasks are further refined into activities to better represent the Project Management lifecycle. Within the PJM phases, ten major activities have been identified:
- Project Start Up Activities
- Review Bid and Contract
- Validate Scope, Stakeholders, and Organization Change Management Strategy
- Develop Workplan, Risk Assessment, Quality Management Plan
- Develop Staff Plan and Budget
- Complete Project Management Plan
- Establish Project Infrastructure and Orientation Guides
- Project Execution and Control Activities
- Project Execution and Control
- Project Closure Activities
- Gain Acceptance
- Close Processes and Contract
- Document Lessons Learned and Archive Project
In the Project Start Up and the Project Closure phases, there are dependencies among the activities which further define the Project Management lifecycle. The following illustrations represent the Project Start Up phase Activities and the Project Closure phase activities.
CALING PJM TO THE INDIVIDUAL PROJECT
Although it has been developed for moderate to large-scale projects, PJM is also applicable to smaller efforts as well. The philosophy behind PJM is that the principles of sound project management, do not change with project size. Rather, the sophistication, structure and procedural approach should scale as appropriate. For example, a large, multi-team, multi-site program will require a sophisticated Issue Management system and database while a small single location project team may find a simple Excel spreadhseet sufficient for capturing and tracking issues. In line with this philosophy, each PJM task should be considered a required, core task. However, the depth to which these tasks are performed on smaller projects may vary substantially from larger projects.
As part of scaling PJM to the project, the project manager must determine which, if any, PJM work products should be expanded, reduced, or consolidated based upon the scope, objectives, approach and risks of the project.
PJM is a scaleable, flexible tool. It is comprised of well-defined processes that can be managed in several ways to guide a team through an implementation project. Teams frequently tailor PJM to match the project’s expertise, complexity, requirements and scope .
Note: PJM tasks within PJM processes, depending upon the scope, objectives and approach of the project, can be both linear and concurrent.
PJM'S RELATIONSHIP TO THE REGIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT (PM) STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP)
PJM does not address region-specific, country-specific or intra-country policies, legal statutes, etc. which the project manager may be required to follow. Nor does PJM address any individual organization's internal status reporting requirements, or administrative policies or procedures. Instead, region-specific project management requirements or internal administrative requirements are covered outside of PJM via Regional Project Management Standard Operating Procedures (PMSOP).
PJM is a global method for project management and is designed to be client-facing. PJM does not eliminate the need for regional PM SOP. PJM addresses the global Project Management process. PJM focuses on “what” needs to be done rather than “how” is should be done. PJM does not address region-specific, country-specific or intra-country policies, legal statutes, internal status reporting requirements, or administrative policies or procedures that the Project Manager is responsible for following. Instead, region-specific project management requirements or internal administrative requirements are covered outside of PJM via the (PMSOP).
In contrast, the Regional SOPs pick up where PJM leaves off. They will focus on regionally specific processes and tasks that may change with a new organization or tool. The SOPs may include additional guidance on “what” needs to be done, but may also explain “how” to perform a task using an internal process or tool.
PROJECT DELIVERY ORGANIZATION
Reuse is almost self-explanatory, and is a very simple but general concept and can be summed up as "not reinventing the wheel." All phases should make use of reusing intellectual capital (IC). To make sure that Oracle Consulting Services (OCS) is taking advantage of past projects and capturing the best from current projects, project and program managers should:
Estimating and organizing project management involves three factors:
- Project Management Effort
- Consulting-Client Relationship
- Project Management Staffing
- Project Management Effort
Oracle’s project experience indicates that total project management effort typically ranges from 15% of project effort for small projects to as much as 25% for the largest projects. Project management relative effort increases as the project size increases because of increasing phase control complexity and coordination among full time project management team members. Project duration also affects project management effort relative to total project effort, since Project Execution and Control occurs during the entire project.
The people who have influence over the products and conduct of the project may be drawn from within the organization, supplied by an outside organization, or a combination of both.
A contract may or may not be involved. In PJM, the consultant and the client represent the two parties which together form the project management team responsible for the project’s success. The client represents the customer organization, or primary beneficiary of the project’s work products, as well as the acquirer, or funding source for the project. The client is also assumed to be capable of providing both physical and human resources for the project. The consultant represents an information services provider organization with management structure and systems. This organization may be either a profit center, performing the project for a profit, or a cost center, sharing project costs with the client. It is made up of practices, or business units, which supply consulting staff resources and sub-contractors to the project.Note that the tasks performed in reaching and maintaining a contractual agreement between the client and consultant are not covered in PJM. PJM assumes that a contract may be established prior to the start of the project, and identifies where contractual impacts can occur during the project. A contract is not a prerequisite for the use of PJM. PJM also assumes that both the client and the consultant have internal management policies governing project conduct. Tailor these aspects of the client-consultant relationship to your project’s specific situation.
Key Project Management Roles
The key management roles performed by the client in PJM are the project sponsor and client project manager. The project sponsor is the client role that holds the budget for the project, and may be an individual or a committee. The project sponsor ensures organizational commitment to the project and validates project objectives. The client project manager is expected to be assigned to the project where client commitments or business interests require a daily client management presence. This role is responsible for providing client resources, resolving problems, and monitoring the consultant’s progress. The key management roles performed by the consultant in PJM are the Oracle executive sponsor and the project manager. The Oracle executive sponsor role represents the consulting manager whose practice is responsible for the successful execution of the project. The project manager is held ultimately responsible for the project’s success or failure. The project manager must manage the various aspects of time, cost, scope, and quality to satisfy client expectations and meet the business objectives of the consulting practice, while providing challenging opportunities to project staff.
Project Management Staffing
The roles depicted in the organization chart are those that are assigned responsibilities to perform PJM tasks.
- Staffing involves two factors:
- Role Allocated to Staff
- Multi-Site Project Considerations
- Roles Allocated to Staff
Each role defined in the project management support team will only be assigned to different people on medium-sized projects or larger. On the largest projects, there may even be more than one person performing each of these roles, and the team will be organized into a project office, with a manager.
On smaller projects, the project manager assumes most of the responsibilities of the project support team. The first responsibility the project manager should relinquish as project size increases is that of configuration manager. This role is frequently assigned to a senior person performing a technical support role, such as a system administrator.
The responsibility for quality management is only a full-time position on large-scale projects. The quality auditor should not report to any of the project team due to a potential conflict of interest. The quality auditor is a role independent of the project as shown on the staffing chart. There are other organizations that are commonly employed on larger projects to facilitate management communication and decision-making:
This organization is usually chaired by the project sponsor or senior client decision-maker. Its purpose is to provide the project with strategic direction, resolve change requests and issues affecting scope, approve contract changes, and direct coordinating client actions outside of the project. The Oracle executive sponsor is also normally a member of the steering committee.
Change Control Board (CCB)
The CCB is an internal project organization the purpose of which is to review and resolve change requests. The CCB is chaired by the project manager and includes the client project manager, project administrator, configuration manager, and team leaders. The CCB normally escalates changes affecting scope to the steering committee.
Issue Review Board (IRB)
The IRB is organized to resolve escalated issues and manage risks where a regular, dedicated meeting is deemed necessary. It is staffed similarly to the CCB, and can be combined with it. It may also be part of a weekly project progress review team which would meet to discuss project progress including issues and risks.
Multi-Site Project Considerations
Multiple site projects require a higher level of project administration and control to coordinate the tasks and to leverage common work products between projects. In a multiple site project, you will need to position site coordinators as part of your project management team. These people also ensure that there is consistency in the delivery and presentations of work, use of techniques and approach, use of standards and guidelines, and interpretation of enterprise wide strategies.
Another important role that coordinators perform is facilitating the technical strategies between related sites. This role calls for a more formal exchange of technical information and status review. These site coordinators will also distribute software and documentation to multiple data centers.